English Vocab

1)  Stigmatize (verb) 
Meaning:  To characterize as disgraceful or ignominious
Synonyms:  blacken, smear, denigrate, slander, malign
Antonyms: approve, compliment, destigmatize, exalt
Usage:  The routine aim is to disparage and stigmatize activities or sentiments that displease policymakers in Washington.

2) metaphor (Adj) 
Meaning: The word or phrase used in this way: Deliberate or unintentional overstatement, particularly extreme overstatement
Synonyms: analogy, conceit, emblem, image, symbol, allegory
Antonyms: meiosis, compression, decrease, lessening
Usage: In that sense we use the metaphor of the bar code, it’s a unique identifier for each species.

3) uncharted (adj) 
Meaning: Not surveyed or mapped
Synonyms: unexplored, unfamiliar, unplumbed, unmapped
Antonyms: familiar, near, explored
Usage: For a professional explorer to stumble upon such uncharted territory can be very chastening.

4) hitherto (noun) 
Meaning: Up until this or that time
Synonyms: earlier, formerly, hereto, fore, previously, before, so far, theretofore
Antonyms: henceforth, hence, forward, hereafter, thenceforth
Usage: In May of 1985, Simpson and his partner Simon Yates set out to scale the west face of Siula Grande, a hitherto unclimbed peak in Peru.

5) countenance (noun) 
Meaning: . A person’s face or facial expression
Synonyms: semblance, appearance, features, visage, aspect
Antonyms: hindrance, anxiety, uneasiness, nervousness, disquiet, gaucheness
Usage:  He received, and scoursed to every person with a leasant and smiling countenance.

6) entrench (verb) 
Meaning: To place, lay or set firmly in surrounding matter
Synonyms: lodge, root, embed, establish, plant
Antonyms: depose, overturn, expel, disturb, defenestrate
Usage: Such a structure would only entrench current divisions and might even lead to ethnic cleansing.

7) mellow (noun) 
Meaning: Having a melodious or harmonious sound, Having an easy-going mood or temperament
Synonyms: mellifluous, melodious, rich, soft, tuneful, dulcet, euphonious tranquil, composed, unruffled, nonchalant
Antonyms: uneasy, edgy, nervy, worried, jittery, skittish
Usage: He seems considerably more mellow to me today than he did then and still a man of impeccable integrity.

8) expediency (noun) 
Meaning: Appropriateness or suitability , Temporary help
Synonyms: convenience, advisability, benefit, effectiveness, utilitarianism, wisdom, meekness, shift, substitute, contrivance
Antonyms: recklessness, irresponsibility, incaution, impulsiveness
Usage:  They are not just men sacrificed to expediency, they are not men too civilised for an uncivilised world.

9) hurtle (noun)
Meaning: Move or cause to move at high speed, typically in an uncontrolled manner
Synonyms: blaze, blow, boogie,  zoom, blast, run, stampede
Antonyms: crawl, creep, poke, plod, slow
Usage: Firefighters change en route, as they bowl down the Byres Road or hurtle along the motorway.

10) belie (verb)  
Meaning: To demonstrate or expose to the falsehood of something
Synonyms: disprove, contradict, discredit, confute, refute, debunk, rebut
Antonyms: confirm, establish, prove, validate

Usage: These figures belie the constantly repeated claims of mass popular support for the brutal war.

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