English Vocab

1  IRIDESCENT (adjective) इंद्रधनुषी
Meaning: Showing luminous colors that seem to change when seen from different angles.

Synonyms: shining, glittering, sparkling, shimmering.
Antonyms: colorless, dull, plain, monochrome.
Usage: When the jeweler looked at the iridescent gems, he was made speechless by their brilliant colors.

2  THROWAWAY (adjective) फेंका हुआ
Meaning: Denoting or relating to products that are

intended to be discarded after being used once or a few times.
Synonyms: casual, careless, offhand, ill-considered.
Antonyms: adopt, embrace, retain, conserve
Usage: She was very upset at what to him was just a throwaway remark.

3. PRUNE (verb) काटना
Meaning: Trim (a tree, shrub, or bush) by cutting away dead or overgrown branches or stems, especially to encourage growth.
Synonyms: reduce, cut/trim, decrease.
Antonyms: elongate, extend, lengthen.
Usage: Ideally, you should start pruning your tree to limit its size before it reaches full size.

4. STRIDE (noun) तरक़्क़ी
Meaning: A long step or stage in making progress.
Synonyms: clump, tramp, stomp, stalk.
Antonyms: amble, meander, , wander.
Usage: In two bounding strides the woman was in the street, kneeling over her friend.

5. VEXATIOUS (adjective) अफ़सोसनाक
Meaning: Causing or tending to cause annoyance, frustration, or worry.
Synonyms: annoying, vexing, irritating, irksome.
Antonyms: helpful, soothing, aiding, assisting.
Usage: This vexatious problem was resolved, incompletely, by civil war and secession.

6. STODGY (adjective) घिसा पिटा
Meaning: Dull and uninspired; lacking originality or excitement
Synonyms: uninteresting, dreary, uninspired, monotonous.
Antonyms: exciting, creative, breathtaking, enthralling.
Usage: Most of my students used informal, asymmetrical balance, as formal balance can seem stodgy and dull.

7. PURPORTEDLY (adverb) कथित रूप से
Meaning: As appears or is stated to be true, though not necessarily so; allegedly.
Synonyms: allegedly, professedly, supposedly, seemingly.
Antonyms: absolutely, authentically, certainly, earnestly.
Usage: The woman found a letter purportedly signed by the Prime Minister.

8. AMELIORATE (verb) सुधारना
Meaning: make (something bad or unsatisfactory) better
Synonyms: better, reformed, amend, elevate.
Antonyms: worsen, aggravate, decline, blemish.
Usage: Ameliorate the relationship with your distant mother by sending a letter.

9. SKIRMISH (noun)  झड़प
Meaning: an episode of irregular or unpremeditated fighting, especially between small        or outlying parts of armies or fleets.
Synonyms: Battle, fight, Clash.
Antonyms: Peace, Calm, Harmony.
Usage: Right before the game’s results were announced, the fans got into a skirmish over whose team was the greatest.

10. TOUCHSTONE (noun) मापदंड
Meaning: a criterion by which something is judged
Synonyms: benchmark, criterion, metric, standard.
Antonyms: aberration, deviation, abnormality.
Usage: An understanding of grammar is often considered a touchstone by which all language skills are compared to.

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